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چهار فصل

Les quatre saisons




is rooted in

ر ب ب

Its first important imprint is that of a person who brings up someone morally and physically; expressions like custodianship, guardianship, reformation, and completion spring from it. Then, based on these meanings concepts like superiority, dominance, possession, and lordship grew; examples of -lord- lexicographic usage are as follows,

to bring up and help someone grow is an essential part of -lord-

for example,



are used for an adopted boy and girl. The adjective ربيب is also used for a child who is in the custodial care of his stepfather. The nurse who looks after a child who is also known as ربيبه the foster mother is named for ربّه for she fosters someone else’s child. In the same sense, a foster father is called رابّ



are medication preserved for safe-keeping.

The verbs are employed in the sense of growth, enhancement and completion,

for example,

ربّ النّعمة

means increasing one’s goodness to others or being extremely generous in one’s dispensation.

To help converge all bits that are scattered, to consolidate and provide fall within -lord- ambit.

for example,

فُلانٌ يَرُبُّ النّاسَ

means that a certain person brings other people together or people converge on his call.

the place of convergence is called مَرَبّ

convergence itself is known as تَرَبُّب

to look after someone, to improve a person’s situation, and to provide for and superintend someone are auxiliary uses of the word -lord-

the expression,

ربَّ ضَيعَتَهُ

means that a named person looked after someone else’s property.

In the Battle of Hunayn, Safwan is reported to have said to Abu Sufian that:

 يَرُبَّنِي رَجُلٌ مِن قُرَيشٍ أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ مِن أن يَرُبَّني رَجُلٌ مِن هَوَازِنَ

he would prefer to receive custodial care from a Qurayshi man than from a Havazin

says ibn Ubaydah:

وَكُنتُ امرِأً أَفَضتُ إِلَيك رَبابَتِي

وَقَبلَكَ رَبَتَّني فَضِعتُ رُبُوبِي

i have lost the rich man preceding you, who was my beneficent patron. Now my upkeep and well-being have fallen into your hands.

says Farazdaq:

كَانُوا كَسَائِلَةٍ حَمقاءَ إِذا حَقَنَت

سَلائَهَا في أَدِيمٍ غَيرِ مَربُوبِ

they were like a stupid female clarifying butter, when she collected her clarifying butter in a skin not seasoned with rob.

meaning a piece of leather which has not been cleansed or tanned for use.


 فُلانٌ يَرُبُّ صنعَتَهُ عِندَ فُلاَنٍ

means he pursues his trade with a certain person or he received training in a skill from that person.

the lexicon also allows for a meaning like dominance, leadership, to command, and so forth.

for example, the expression,

قَد رَبَّ فُلانٌ قَومَهُ

means that a certain person subjected his people to his will.

likewise, the expression,

رَبَّيتُ القّومَ

means I enforced my command on my people and overpowered it.

says ibn Rabiah:

وَأهلَكنَ يَومًا ربَّ كِندَةَ وابنَهُ

ورَبَّ مَعَدٍّ بَينَ خَبتٍ وعرعَرِ

one day they destroyed the chief of Kindah and his son and the chief of Ma’ad between Khabt and Ar’ar.

meaning the chieftain whose writ was honoured by his tribe.

in the same context, Nabighah and Dhubyani said:

 تَخِبُّ إِلى النُّعمانِ حتَّى تَنَالَهُ

فِدًى لَكَ مِن رَبٍّ تَلِيدِي وَطَارِفِي


The word -lord- also entails ownership.

for example, a prophetic narration says that a person asked the Prophet:

أَرَبُّ غَنَمٍ أَم رَبُّ إِبِلٍ

are you the master of the goats or the camels?

in the same context, the master of the house is called.

رَبّ الدَّارِ

the master of the camel

رَبُّ النّاقَةِ

the master of the property

رَبُّ الضَّيعَه

the same meaning is applicable to the master as opposed to the servant عَبد

By repeated misuse over the years the meaning of the word -lord- has been reduced to one who provides, i.e. the provider.

However, in a cumulative sense, when all its various meanings are considered, the word rather bridges a broad-based concept that convers the following range of meanings:

He who nourishes and dispenses needs, brings up morally and physically.

He who takes care, supervises, and is responsible for improving the situation.

He who has the axial position upon whom divergence converges.

He who is the noblest and the source of power and authority; whose writ prevails and who is the wielder of dispensation.

He who is the owner and the master.



Modèle, déviations et réponse islamique


The Quran describes the best governance for humans as one that accepts Allah’s and His Messengers’ legal superiority, and abdicates their right to govern in deference to the True Sovereign and accept their role as Viceregent. Obviously, in this caliphal capacity his powers, whether explicatory, judicial, or administrative will be governed by the boundaries prescribed by the Heavenly Law.


وَأَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَمُهَيْمِنًا عَلَيْهِ ۖ فَاحْكُم بَيْنَهُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ ۖ وَلَا تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءَهُمْ عَمَّا جَاءَكَ مِنَ الْحَقِّ

Then we revealed the Book to you, (Muhammad), with Truth, confirming whatsoever of the Book was revealed before, and protecting and guarding over it. Judge, then, in the affairs of men in accordance with the Law that Allah has revealed, and do not follow their desires in disregard of the Truth which has come to you.


يَا دَاوُودُ إِنَّا جَعَلْنَاكَ خَلِيفَةً فِي الْأَرْضِ فَاحْكُم بَيْنَ النَّاسِ بِالْحَقِّ وَلَا تَتَّبِعِ الْهَوَىٰ فَيُضِلَّكَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ

(We said to him) David, We have appointed you viceregent on earth. Therefore, rule among people and do not follow (your) desire lest if should lead you astray from Allah’s Path.

The Caliphate, as expounded by the Quran, underscores the fact that they should use whatever Allah has gifted to humans in the permissible limits. Thus, humans are not unboundedly autonomous in their use but are the custodians of the True Master.


وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ إِنِّي جَاعِلٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً

Think when your Lord said to the angels: Lo! I am about to place a viceregent on earth.


وَلَقَدْ مَكَّنَّاكُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَجَعَلْنَا لَكُمْ فِيهَا مَعَايِشَ

We assuredly established you in the earth and arranged for your livelihood in it.


أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ سَخَّرَ لَكُم مَّا فِي الْأَرْضِ

Have you not seen how Allah has subjected to you all that is in the earth?


وَاذْكُرُوا إِذْ جَعَلَكُمْ خُلَفَاءَ مِن بَعْدِ قَوْمِ نُوحٍ

And do call to mind when He made you successors after the people of Noah.


وَاذْكُرُوا إِذْ جَعَلَكُمْ خُلَفَاءَ مِن بَعْدِ عَادٍ

And call to mind when after (the people of) Ad,

He made you their successors.


عَسَىٰ رَبُّكُمْ أَن يُهْلِكَ عَدُوَّكُمْ وَيَسْتَخْلِفَكُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَيَنظُرَ كَيْفَ تَعْمَلُونَ

(Moses) said: Your Lord will soon destroy your enemy and make you rulers in the land. Then He will see how you fare.


ثُمَّ جَعَلْنَاكُمْ خَلَائِفَ فِي الْأَرْضِ مِن بَعْدِهِمْ لِنَنظُرَ كَيْفَ تَعْمَلُونَ

Now We have appointed you as their successors in the earth to see how you fare.

This Caliphate will qualify itself to be valid and only when it subordinates itself to the will of the True Master. All infringed deeds that concretise themselves into an autonomous system of governance free from the DIVINE ORDINATION will be rebellious and not a caliphal manifestation.


هُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَكُمْ خَلَائِفَ فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ فَمَن كَفَرَ فَعَلَيْهِ كُفْرُهُ ۖ وَلَا يَزِيدُ الْكَافِرِينَ كُفْرُهُمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ إِلَّا مَقْتًا ۖ وَلَا يَزِيدُ الْكَافِرِينَ كُفْرُهُمْ إِلَّا خَسَارًا

It is He Who made you viceregents in the earth. So whoever disbelieves will bear the burden of his unbelief. The unbelievers’ unbelief adds nothing but Allah’s wrath against them. The unbelievers’ unbelief adds nothing but their own loss.


أَلَمْ تَرَ كَيْفَ فَعَلَ رَبُّكَ بِعَادٍ

إِرَمَ ذَاتِ الْعِمَادِ

الَّتِي لَمْ يُخْلَقْ مِثْلُهَا فِي الْبِلَادِ

وَثَمُودَ الَّذِينَ جَابُوا الصَّخْرَ بِالْوَادِ

وَفِرْعَوْنَ ذِي الْأَوْتَادِ

الَّذِينَ طَغَوْا فِي الْبِلَادِ

Have you not seen how your Lord dealt with Ad of Iram, known for their lofty columns, the like of whom no nation was ever created in the lands of the world? And how did He deal with Thamud, who hewed out rocks in the valley? And with Pharaoh of the pillars who transgressed in the countries of the world?


اذْهَبْ إِلَىٰ فِرْعَوْنَ إِنَّهُ طَغَىٰ

فَقُلْ هَل لَّكَ إِلَىٰ أَن تَزَكَّىٰ

وَأَهْدِيَكَ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكَ فَتَخْشَىٰ

فَأَرَاهُ الْآيَةَ الْكُبْرَىٰ

فَكَذَّبَ وَعَصَىٰ

ثُمَّ أَدْبَرَ يَسْعَىٰ

فَحَشَرَ فَنَادَىٰ

فَقَالَ أَنَا رَبُّكُمُ الْأَعْلَىٰ

And directed him: Go to Pharaoh, he has rebelled, and say to him: Are you willing to be purified, that I may direct you to your Lord and then you hold Him in awe? Then Moses (went to Pharaoh and) showed him the Great Sign; but he denied it as false and disobeyed, and then he turned back to have recourse to his craftiness, and gathered his people and declared: I am the supreme lord of you all.


وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنكُمْ وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَيَسْتَخْلِفَنَّهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ كَمَا اسْتَخْلَفَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ وَلَيُمَكِّنَنَّ لَهُمْ دِينَهُمُ الَّذِي ارْتَضَىٰ لَهُمْ وَلَيُبَدِّلَنَّهُم مِّن بَعْدِ خَوْفِهِمْ أَمْنًا ۚ يَعْبُدُونَنِي لَا يُشْرِكُونَ بِي شَيْئًا ۚ وَمَن كَفَرَ بَعْدَ ذَٰلِكَ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ

Allah has promised those of you who believe and do righteous deeds that He will surely bestow power on them in the land even as He had bestowed power on those that preceded them. And that that He will firmly establish their religion, which He has been pleased to choose for you, and He will replace with security the state of fear that they are in. Let them serve Me and associate none with Me in My divinity. Whose thereafter engages in unbelief, such indeed are the ungodly.

A person, a family, or a class of people cannot lay claim to this caliphate unless it is entrusted to them by the Community of Believers. According to the stated Quranic verses, every member of the Believers’ Community has an equal part in the Caliphate. No person or group has the right to usurp the caliphal rights of the believers and invest his person with them. Nor can anyone arrogate to himself this caliphate in the name of a prerogative received from Allah. This distinguishes Islamic caliphate from monarchy and class-based government, giving it thus a specific ideology and doctrine of its own kind.

However what stands it apart from Western-Eastern democracy is its essence.

Such political systems are built on popular sovereignty while in the caliphate of Islam people themselves agree to Allah’s sovereignty and willingly restrict their powers within the confines of Allah-given laws.

Obeying the State

The state that emerges from the Holy Mission of establishing God’s Kingdom on Earth can only be given loyalty in matters that fall within the realm of Goodness. Thus, in breaking the Law there is neither obedience nor cooperation.


وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَىٰ ۖ وَلَا تَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ

Rather help you one another in deeds of righteousness and piety, and do not help one another in sin and transgression. Fear Allah! Surely Allah is severe in retribution.


فَاصْبِرْ لِحُكْمِ رَبِّكَ وَلَا تُطِعْ مِنْهُمْ آثِمًا أَوْ كَفُورًا

And do not pay any heed to the wicked and the unbelieving.

The workings of this caliphal state, the efforts to restructure life and the expository and administrative affairs are managed by Consultation.

Whether this Consultation is effectuated through direct or elected representation is not material.


وَأَمْرُهُمْ شُورَىٰ بَيْنَهُمْ

Who conduct their proceedings by consultation.

In the elections of those who will run this caliphal state, the following merits have to be sought.

They should believe in the principles that subsume this caliphate, for its management cannot be entrusted to its opponents.


يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَأُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنكُمْ

Believers! Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger, and those invested with authority among you.


يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا بِطَانَةً مِّن دُونِكُمْ

Believers! Do not take for near friends and companions those who are not of your kind.

explained: one’s near friend and a dear companion whom he trusts and consults for his vital interests, in another meaning -every person can be called near friend whom someone trusts while he is not amongst his people-

derivative of the Arab proverb,

فلانٌ وليجةٌ في القوم

that is -a certain person has intruded himself into these people even though he is not of them-


أَمْ حَسِبْتُمْ أَن تُتْرَكُوا وَلَمَّا يَعْلَمِ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ جَاهَدُوا مِنكُمْ وَلَمْ يَتَّخِذُوا مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلَا رَسُولِهِ وَلَا الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَلِيجَةً

Do you imagine that you will be spared without being subjected to any test? Know ye well that Allah has not yet determined who strove hard (in His cause), and has not taken any others instead of His Messenger and the believers as his trusted allies.

That they should not be victimisers, law breakers, and sinners, oblivious of Allah in their lives and stepping off the boundaries. Rather, they should be Allah fearing and pious. If an oppressor or outlaw appropriates Caliphate to himself, his Guardianship will be invalid in the Eye of Islam.


وَإِذِ ابْتَلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ رَبُّهُ بِكَلِمَاتٍ فَأَتَمَّهُنَّ ۖ قَالَ إِنِّي جَاعِلُكَ لِلنَّاسِ إِمَامًا ۖ قَالَ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِي ۖ قَالَ لَا يَنَالُ عَهْدِي الظَّالِمِينَ

Recall when Abraham’s Lord tested him in certain matters and when he successfully stood the test, He said: Indeed I am going to appoint you a leader of all people. When Abraham asked: and is this Covenant also for my descendants? the Lord responded: My Covenant does not embrace the wrongdoers.

explained: although the lexicographic meaning of Guardian stands for any person who is followed, whether in truth or falsehood, in this verse it refers to a person who is entitled to be followed and whose obedience is binding (on others). Thus in this sense, the prophets are invested with Guardianship, followed by the rightly-guided caliphs, the pious, the religious scholars, and the judges. Thereafter, a cruel person cannot be a prophet nor is it right that he becomes the prophet’s successor or a judge or an official liable to be followed in matters of religion; this verse proves that a law-breaker’s Guardianship is invalid and he cannot be the caliph. Should he grab this office people are not bound to follow and obey him.


أَمْ نَجْعَلُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ كَالْمُفْسِدِينَ فِي الْأَرْضِ أَمْ نَجْعَلُ الْمُتَّقِينَ كَالْفُجَّارِ

Shall We then treat alike those that believe and perform righteously and those that create mischief on earth? Or treat alike the God-fearing and the wicked?


وَلَا تُطِعْ مَنْ أَغْفَلْنَا قَلْبَهُ عَن ذِكْرِنَا وَاتَّبَعَ هَوَاهُ وَكَانَ أَمْرُهُ فُرُطًا

And obey not the one whose heart We have permitted to neglect the remembrance of Us, one who follows his own desires, whose case has gone beyond all bounds.


وَلَا تُطِيعُوا أَمْرَ الْمُسْرِفِينَ

الَّذِينَ يُفْسِدُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا يُصْلِحُونَ

And do not follow the bidding of those that go to excesses and spread mischief in the land rather than set things right.


إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِندَ اللَّهِ أَتْقَاكُمْ

Verily the noblest of you in the sight of Allah is the most God-fearing of you.

They should not be simple-minded nor ignorant but should be knowledgeable, wise, and understand problems, capable enough mentally and physically to run the caliphal affairs:


وَلَا تُؤْتُوا السُّفَهَاءَ أَمْوَالَكُمُ الَّتِي جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ قِيَامًا

Do not entrust your properties – which Allah has made a means of support for you.


قَالُوا أَنَّىٰ يَكُونُ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ عَلَيْنَا وَنَحْنُ أَحَقُّ بِالْمُلْكِ مِنْهُ وَلَمْ يُؤْتَ سَعَةً مِّنَ الْمَالِ ۚ قَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ اصْطَفَاهُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَزَادَهُ بَسْطَةً فِي الْعِلْمِ وَالْجِسْمِ

They said: By what right shall he rule over us when we are more worthy than he to dominion, for he is not very wealthy? He said: Allah has chosen him over you and has endowed him abundantly with both intellectual and physical capacities.


وَشَدَدْنَا مُلْكَهُ وَآتَيْنَاهُ الْحِكْمَةَ وَفَصْلَ الْخِطَابِ

And We strengthened his kingdom, and endowed him wisdom and decisive judgement.


قَالَ اجْعَلْنِي عَلَىٰ خَزَائِنِ الْأَرْضِ ۖ إِنِّي حَفِيظٌ عَلِيمٌ

Joseph stated, place me in charge of the treasures of the land. I am a good keeper and know my task well.


وَلَوْ رَدُّوهُ إِلَى الرَّسُولِ وَإِلَىٰ أُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْهُمْ لَعَلِمَهُ الَّذِينَ يَسْتَنبِطُونَهُ مِنْهُمْ

Whereas if they were to convey it to either the Messenger or to those from among them entrusted with authority, it would come to the knowledge of those who are competent to investigate it.


قُلْ هَلْ يَسْتَوِي الَّذِينَ يَعْلَمُونَ وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

Ask them, are those who know equal to those who do not know?


إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْمُرُكُمْ أَن تُؤَدُّوا الْأَمَانَاتِ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِهَا

Allah commands you to deliver trusts to those worthy of them.

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