Les quatre saisons
has its roots in
ا ل ه
The words so derived
ألِهَ إذا تَحَيَّرَ
astounded and bewildered
ألِهتُ إلى فُلان أي سَكَنتُ إلَيهِ
i felt comforted by seeking his refuge
ألِهَ الرَّجُلُ إذا فَزِعَ مِن أَمرٍ نَزَلَ بِهِ فآلَهَهُ غَيرُهُ؛ أَي أَجارَهُ
a person who is scared because of some calamitous event or hurt and the other gives him protection
ألِهَ الرَّجُلُ إلى الرَّجُلِ اتَّجَهَ إلَيهِ لِشِدَّةِ شَوقِهِ إِلَيهِ
a person who has turned towards someone else with a longing heart
ألِهَ الفَصِيلُ إذا وَلِهَ بأُمِّهِ
the baby camel which was separated clung to its mother when it found her
لاهَ يَلِيهُ لِيهاً وَلاهاً إِذا احتَجَبَ
something became concealed and hidden and then raised in status
الهً اِلَهةً وَاُلُوهَةً وَاُلُوهيَّةً عَبَدَ
he engaged himself in worship
One can establish from these phrases how these expressions were transfigured
into -god- and -worshipped being-
An individual’s call to worship comes from need. He does not think of worshipping anyone unless he feels that the deity he has opted for can help him realise his desires, that he can take him into his protective embrace in the face of a threatening situation or suffering, and that he can give him comfort in distress.
Furthermore, the concept of a relief-giver is essentially tied up with a person’s belief that the former is exalted not only in status but in power and authority as well.
Based on our everyday knowledge of the process involving desire and satisfaction we know that in the casual world, things or people instrumental in gratifying human needs do not generate in us the emotion of worship. For instance, a person needs money to spend; he goes to someone and asks for a job, which he is given. Now, since this entire exercise has sensory and cognitive aspects, it never generates a worship-emotion. This only comes about when the person objectified as satisfier carries a mysterious existence, when his power to deliver and his person are shrouded, inaccessible to view. Hence why in describing the -worshipped being- the word used implies loftiness, concealment, and a surprise element.
The person whom one believes can help in distress or adversity is obviously someone who exerts influence on the seeker. Inevitably, the latter turns earnestly to this person for restitution of their grievances and problems.
Thus, the use of the world -god- for a deity that deserves worship carries an entire panoply of concepts including – provider, amender, protector, comforter, superior, all-powerful and exalted – someone who can spur the seeker into fulfilment and realisation. Besides, he should also possess a mysterious presence, inaccessible to physical sight; therefore humans should feel a natural magnetism towards such a person.
Modèle, déviations et réponse islamique
Primed by this concept of the universe, the Quran says that the real sovereign of humanity is the ONE who is the master of the universe and runs its affairs. Because of it, He alone qualifies to rule humans; Decree is His and none else’s. The difference, however, is that in the universe He enforces His will and calls for no acknowledgement from anyone. Even humans in their unwilled spheres of life (like the physiological functioning of their bodies) are subject to His will as are the particles of matter from the earth to galaxies. In the self-willed sphere of human life He does not enforce His sovereign writ but through revealed books. The last of them is the Quran, which calls them to accept His sovereign will. The Quran has dealt with this subject thoroughly at different places.
That the Lord of the universe is the real Lord of humanity and He alone should be accepted as one who creates and nourishes everything.
قُلْ إِنَّ صَلَاتِي وَنُسُكِي وَمَحْيَايَ وَمَمَاتِي لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ
لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ ۖ وَبِذَٰلِكَ أُمِرْتُ وَأَنَا أَوَّلُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ
قُلْ أَغَيْرَ اللَّهِ أَبْغِي رَبًّا وَهُوَ رَبُّ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ ۚ وَلَا تَكْسِبُ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ إِلَّا عَلَيْهَا ۚ وَلَا تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ وِزْرَ أُخْرَىٰ ۚ ثُمَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكُم مَّرْجِعُكُمْ فَيُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ فِيهِ تَخْتَلِفُونَ
Say: Surely my Prayer, all my acts of worship, and my living and my dying are only for Allah, the Lord of the entire Universe. He has no associate. Thus have I been bidden, and I am the foremost of those who submit themselves (to Allah). Say: Shall I seek someone other than Allah as Lord when He is the Lord of everything? Everyone will bear the consequence of what he does, and no one shall bear the burden of another.
إِنَّ رَبَّكُمُ اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ
Surely your Lord is none other than Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth.
قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ النَّاسِ
Say, I seek refuge with the Lord of mankind; the King of mankind, The True God of mankind.
قُلْ مَن يَرْزُقُكُم مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ أَمَّن يَمْلِكُ السَّمْعَ وَالْأَبْصَارَ وَمَن يُخْرِجُ الْحَيَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَيُخْرِجُ الْمَيِّتَ مِنَ الْحَيِّ وَمَن يُدَبِّرُ الْأَمْرَ ۚ فَسَيَقُولُونَ اللَّهُ ۚ فَقُلْ أَفَلَا تَتَّقُونَ
فَذَٰلِكُمُ اللَّهُ رَبُّكُمُ الْحَقُّ ۖ فَمَاذَا بَعْدَ الْحَقِّ إِلَّا الضَّلَالُ ۖ فَأَنَّىٰ تُصْرَفُونَ
Ask them: Who provides you with sustenance from the heavens and the earth? Who holds mastery over your hearing and sight? Who brings forth the living from the dead and the dead from the living? Who governs all affairs of the Universe? They will surely say: Allah. Tell them: Will you, then, not shun (going against reality)? Such, then, is Allah, your true Lord. And what is there after Truth but error? How, then, are you being turned away?
وَمَا اخْتَلَفْتُمْ فِيهِ مِن شَيْءٍ فَحُكْمُهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ
The judgement on whatever you differ rests with Allah.
إِنِ الْحُكْمُ إِلَّا لِلَّهِ ۚ أَمَرَ أَلَّا تَعْبُدُوا إِلَّا إِيَّاهُ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ
He has command that you serve none but Him. This is the right way of life, though most people are altogether unaware.
يَقُولُونَ هَل لَّنَا مِنَ الْأَمْرِ مِن شَيْءٍ ۗ قُلْ إِنَّ الْأَمْرَ كُلَّهُ لِلَّهِ
They ask: Have we any say in the matter? Tell them: Truly, all power of decision rests solely with Allah.
أَلَا لَهُ الْخَلْقُ وَالْأَمْرُ
Lo! His is the creation and His is the command.
وَالسَّارِقُ وَالسَّارِقَةُ فَاقْطَعُوا أَيْدِيَهُمَا جَزَاءً بِمَا كَسَبَا نَكَالًا مِّنَ اللَّهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
فَمَن تَابَ مِن بَعْدِ ظُلْمِهِ وَأَصْلَحَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ يَتُوبُ عَلَيْهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ يُعَذِّبُ مَن يَشَاءُ وَيَغْفِرُ لِمَن يَشَاءُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
As for the thief – man or woman, cut off hands of both. This is a recompense for what they have done, and an exemplary punishment from Allah. Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise. But he who repents after he has committed wrong, and makes amends, Allah will graciously turn to him. Truly, Allah is All-Forgiving, All-Merciful. Do you not know that to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth? He chastises whom He wills and forgives whom He wills. Allah is All-Powerful.
عَسَىٰ أَن تَكْرَهُوا شَيْئًا وَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ ۖ وَعَسَىٰ أَن تُحِبُّوا شَيْئًا وَهُوَ شَرٌّ لَّكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ وَأَنتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ
And it is disliked by you; it may well be that you dislike a thing even though it is good for you, and it may well be that you like a thing even though it is bad for you. Allah knows and you do not know.
وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ الْمُفْسِدَ مِنَ الْمُصْلِحِ
Allah knows the mischievous from the righteous, and had Allah willed, He would indeed have imposed on you exacting conditions; but He is All-Powerful, Most Wise.
يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ ۖ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَيْءٍ مِّنْ عِلْمِهِ إِلَّا بِمَا شَاءَ
He knows what lies before them and what is hidden from them, whereas they cannot attain to anything of His knowledge save what He wills them to attain.
إِنَّمَا الصَّدَقَاتُ لِلْفُقَرَاءِ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَالْعَامِلِينَ عَلَيْهَا وَالْمُؤَلَّفَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَالْغَارِمِينَ وَفِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ ۖ فَرِيضَةً مِّنَ اللَّهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ
The alms are meant only for the poor and the needy and those who are in charge thereof, those whose hearts are to be reconciled, and to free those in chains, and to help those burdened with debt, and for expenditure in the Way of Allah and for the wayfarer. This is an obligation from Allah. Allah is all-Knowing, All-Wise.
ذَٰلِكُمْ حُكْمُ اللَّهِ ۖ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَكُمْ ۚ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ
Such is Allah’s command. He judges between you. Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.
For these reasons, the Quran makes a decisive statement that people should obey Allah the Exalted and His laws followed. To leave Him and follow others or one’s own Self is Polytheism and thus prohibited.
إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ فَاعْبُدِ اللَّهَ مُخْلِصًا لَّهُ الدِّينَ
It is We Who have revealed this Book to you with Truth. So serve only Allah, consecrating your devotion to Him.
قُلْ إِنِّي أُمِرْتُ أَنْ أَعْبُدَ اللَّهَ مُخْلِصًا لَّهُ الدِّينَ
وَأُمِرْتُ لِأَنْ أَكُونَ أَوَّلَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ
Tell them i am bidden to serve Allah, consecrating my devotion to Him, and i am bidden to be the first of those who surrender to Him.
وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَّسُولًا أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ
We raised a Messenger in every community (to tell them): Serve Allah and smite the Evil One.
Taghut – Evil who rebels against Allah and is worshipped beside Allah irrespective of the fact whether he is worshipped by force or willingly; it also does not matter if he is Cain or an Idol.
وَمَا أُمِرُوا إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ حُنَفَاءَ
Yet all they had been commanded was that they serve Allah, with utter sincerity, devoting themselves exclusively to Him.
اتَّبِعُوا مَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكُم مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا مِن دُونِهِ أَوْلِيَاءَ
Follow what has been revealed to you from your Lord and follow no masters other than Him.
وَلَئِنِ اتَّبَعْتَ أَهْوَاءَهُم بَعْدَمَا جَاءَكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ مَا لَكَ مِنَ اللَّهِ مِن وَلِيٍّ وَلَا وَاقٍ
Were you indeed to follow the vain desires of people after the true knowledge has come to you, none will be your supporter against Allah, and none will have the power to shield you from His punishment!
ثُمَّ جَعَلْنَاكَ عَلَىٰ شَرِيعَةٍ مِّنَ الْأَمْرِ فَاتَّبِعْهَا وَلَا تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءَ الَّذِينَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ
And then We sent you, on a clear high road in religious matter. So follow that and do not follow the desires of those who do not know.
وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ
And those who do not judge by what Allah has revealed are indeed the unbelievers.
وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ
And those who do not judge by what Allah has revealed are indeed the wrongdoers.
وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ
And those who do not judge by what Allah has revealed are indeed the transgressors.
أَفَحُكْمَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ يَبْغُونَ ۚ وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ مِنَ اللَّهِ حُكْمًا لِّقَوْمٍ يُوقِنُونَ
(If they turn away from the Law of Allah) do they desire judgement according to the Law of Ignorance? But whose judgement can be better than Allah’s for those who have certainly of belief?
أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ يَزْعُمُونَ أَنَّهُمْ آمَنُوا بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ يُرِيدُونَ أَن يَتَحَاكَمُوا إِلَى الطَّاغُوتِ وَقَدْ أُمِرُوا أَن يَكْفُرُوا بِهِ وَيُرِيدُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَن يُضِلَّهُمْ ضَلَالًا بَعِيدًا
Have you not seen those who claim to believe in the Book which has been revealed to you and in the Books revealed before you and in the Books revealed before you and yet desire to submit their disputes to the judgement of Taghut (authority of Cain who decides independently of the law of Allah), whereas they had been asked to reject it. Satan seeks to make them drift far away from the Right Path.