Dobrogea a fost una din regiunile europene unde creştinismul a coabitat cu islamul aproape 500 de ani iar în această regiune românească istoria tătarilor este cea mai îndelungată şi mai bine conservată. Aşezarea lor nu poate fi urmărită decât în baza rarelor izvoare literare, arehologice şi numismatice.
Sunt demne de consemnat, observaţiile fratelui Wilhelm de Rubruquis ce a călătorit prin Pontul Euxin în 1253; câteva amănunte interesante despre această populaţie nomadă:
Casa în care dorm (tătarii) e aşezată pe roate. La acest fantastic vehicul casă ar fi înhămate mai multe animale de tracţiune. Aceste locuinţe mobile unde aceştia îşi păstrau avutul rareori erau coborâte de pe care. Carele-casă erau acoperite cu coviltire frumos pictate. Un bogătaş tătar ar fi avut multe asemenea care, Bătu (şef tătar) are 26 de soţii şi fiecare din ele are câte o casă mare, în afară de altele mai mici, pe care le aduc înapoia celei mari şi servesc de odăi pentru copile.
Ibn Batutta, teolog şi geograf arab, călător al secolului al XIV-lea, a lăsat veşti despre tătari în călătoriile sale prin Dobrogea; el scrie că tătarii aveau legi foarte aspre faţă de hoţi: Hoţii dovediţi trebuiau să înapoieze păgubitului înzecit ceea ce au furat; dacă nu poate, li se luau copiii drept amendă.
La 1641, Bogdan Baksic, arhiepiscop de Sofia trecând prin Dobrogea a întâlnit tătari, sedentari de această dată, locuitori în multe sate veniţi aici din ţara tătărească, aceste sate erau scutite de dări şi de alte angarale, însă trebuiau să dea oameni pentru oastea sultanului, ei erau musulmani. Hrana lor constă din carne de cal, oaie, vită şi lapte de iapă. Ei prepară un fel de băutură albă din mei. Baksic a văzut la Babadag şi ragusani catolici, care nu au biserici, nici preoţi; şi armeni iar nici ei nu aveau biserici.
Călătorul turc Evlia Celebi (1651) referindu-se la populaţia din Mangalia spune că cei mai mulţi ar fi originari din nord-estul Anatoliei, îndeletnicindu-se cu negoţul care cu toţii sunt descendenţi din sclavi, fii de ieniceri sau de ostaşi din oastea de pază, dar că mai trăiau aici greci şi evrei.
Filip Stansilavov, precizează că, la 1659, în Babadag în afară de turci, trăiau şi schismatici bulgari şi greci, care aveau bisericile lor.
Târgul Isaccei era populat, în mare parte, la 1678, după aprecierile solului polon Ioan Gninski de greci, armeni, bulgari, evrei şi turci desigur.
Ion Ionescu de la Brad (agronom, economist şi statistician, 1818-1891) în statistica publicată în studiul său de la 1850, relevă pe lângă turci, români, tătari şi bulgari, lipovei 747 familii; cazaci 1090 familii; greci 300 familii; egipteni 212 familii; arabi 145 familii; germani 59 familii; armeni 126 familii şi evrei 149 familii. Unele comunităţi aveau organizarea lor, precum cea tătară de exemplu; agronomul îi scria lui Ion Ghica (prim-ministru):
În starea de astăzi, pentru 2225 case de tătari este un caimacan, Han Mîrza, care caută pentru interesele lor şi cu care guvernul se întreabă pentru tătari.
Astfel de organizare n-ar fi de dat şi românilor?
Ajuns de la Bucureşti la Cernavodă în 1887 Barbu Delavrancea vede pentru prima oară tătari, acesta exclamă:
Tătarii! Ce chipuri! Un hoge turc cu mătăniile în mână ne priveşte şezând turceşte, oare ce zice în sinea lui când vede dorobanţii români care sunt de gardă la debarcader: timpurile se schimbă şi noi ne schimbăm cu timpurile. Dacă hogea va fi zicând aşa, e tot atât de inteligent ca şi fataliştii germani.
Shah Wali Allah Dehlawi (1703-1762) interpreted the political teachings of Islam through his writings, which clearly differentiated between Islamic and non-Islamic rule; his political philosophy starts with the theory of socio-cultural development. It begins with the emergence of a primitive society which develops into أمّة in the final stage.
Primitive Stages of Political Development
Language is the instrument by which man expresses what is in his mind. It is not only the vehicle of communication but also an instrument of thought. Hence according to Shah Wali Allah, the first step for a man towards the attainment of REVIVALISM is the acquisition of language.
he imitates what he hears from those with whom he is associated. Then he begins to express his thoughts and feelings. When he is hungry and thirsty he finds an experienced person who teaches him to sow, dig wells, domesticate animals, reap, thresh, winnow, store and to cook. He finds a dwelling to protect himself from the weather, clothing to cover his nakedness and selects a mate to fulfill his physical desires and assist him in his domestic life. Thus he interacts with the people around him in several matters. A man of exceptional ability and sound judgement subdues others and becomes their leader by one means or the other.
Unlike animals, man possesses a comprehensive outlook towards life. Most deeds are for rational benefits: it could be to establish justice in town, to refine the soul, to perfect character or to win Lebensraum in the hearts of fellow beings. Aesthetic and emotional motives are also there in human nature, so that beyond his basic needs, man seeks delicious foods, a magnificent dwelling, sumptuous clothing and a beautiful wife.
Shah Wali Allah says that man desires to attain his basic needs in a sophisticated and refined manner. His desire paves the way for the emergence of five sciences: the wisdom of living, wisdom of earning, wisdom of managing his household, wisdom of economic transactions and wisdom of co-operation, which guide him in the pursuit of his needs. Living in accordance with these sciences, he attains a high standard of social and moral progress.
That is the second stage.
Emergence of the City-State as the Primary Stage of Political Development
When people co-operate with each other, some of them seek the help of others. This co-operation and exchange of assistance among people from different backgrounds, such as traders, weavers and tillers constitute a township. According to Shah Wali Allah, such a habitation can be called a city or town if they are villagers who belong to different families and groups and have close dealings with each other because a township is not merely walls, fortresses and markets. The families and groups in the city are like organs of a human body. All functions are obliged to unitedly protect the body and to Keep it in sound condition. For this they have to choose a leader who is capable of fully reforming its affairs and to prevent corruption and disease; there are several reasons to choose a leader:
Jealousy and stinginess are instinctive in human nature. They result in differences and disputes which cause disruptions in relations between people of the city and create a sense of insecurity. Therefore it is necessary to select a just ruler who is capable of solving disputes.
This phase is called قضاء
When low desires and baser tendencies prevail upon the people and the city is corrupted and diseased, a just ruler is elected.
This phase is named شاهريارية
Sometimes people who are jealous, indulge in loot, murders and rebellion. Then brave fighters are required to be gathered under a capable leader to suppress such groups and protect the city.
This phase is termed جهاد
People may not have enough time and capacity to handle both their personal affairs and the affairs of the city. There are also a variety of opinions among people. It is easy for them to entrust the affairs of the city to a single person who will protect their life and property along with the frontiers of the city, dig canals, build bridges, arrange marriages of orphans and distribute inheritance among heirs and alms among the needy.
This phase is called آمانة
A large number of people in the city are of corrupt nature, desire luxury and act upon their low desires. Hence a wise missionary who cultivates noble characters is to be elected, so that the administration of the city may be managed.
This phase is called التزكية والموعظة
حجة الله البالغة
Establishment and constitution of the Vakf Council
For the purpose of advising it, on matters concerning the working of boards and the due administration of VAKFS, the ÎCŞ–CD (Înalta Curte de Şaria–Curtea Drepturilor) may, by notification in the MO (Monitorul Oficial), establish a Council to be called the Vakf Council.
The Council shall consist of a Chairman, who shall be the Secretary in charge of VAKFS, and such other members not exceeding twenty in number, as may be appointed by the ÎCŞ.
The term of office of the procedure to be followed in the discharge of their functions by, and the manner of filling casual vacancies among, members of the Council shall be such as may be prescribed by rules made by the ÎCŞ.
Finance of the Council
Every Board shall pay from its VAKF Fund annually to the Council such contribution as is equivalent to one percent (1%), of the aggregate of the net annual income of the VAKFS in respect of which contribution is payable under sub-section:
Provided that where the Board in the case of any particular VAKF has remitted the whole of the contribution payable to it under sub-section of that section, then for calculating the contribution payable to the Council under this section, the net annual income of the VAKF in respect of which such remission has been granted shall not be taken into account.
All monies received by the Council under sub-section and all other monies received by it as donations, benefits and grants shall form a fund to be called the Vakf Trust.
Subject to any rules that may be made by the ÎCŞ in this behalf, the Vakf Trust shall be under the control of the Council and may be applied for such purposes as the Council may deem fit.
Accounts and audit
The Council shall cause to be maintained such books of account and other books in relation to its accounts in such form and in such manner as may be prescribed by rules made by the ÎCŞ.
The account of the Council shall be audited and examined annually by such auditor as may be appointed by the ÎCŞ.
The costs of the audit shall be paid from the Vakf Trust.
Power of ÎCŞ to make rules
ÎCŞ–CD may, by notification in the MO, enforce rules to carry out the purposes of this chapter.
In the particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters, namely: the term of office of the procedure to be followed in the discharge of their functions by and the manner of filling casual vacancies among the members of the Council; control over and application of the Vakf Trust; the form and manner in which accounts of the Council may be maintained.
Every rule made by the ÎCŞ under this chapter shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is made, before each Nadva (Adunarea regională) while it is in session for a total period of thirty days, which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions, and if, before the expiry of the sessions immediately following the session or the successive sessions aforesaid, Büyük Nadva (Adunarea Stărilor) agrees in making any modification in the rule or agrees that the rule should not be made; the rule shall thereafter have effect only in such modified form or be of no effect, as the case may be; so, however, that any such modification or annulment shall be without prejudice to the validity of anything previously done under rule.